This series brings together documents relating to migration statistics. The Migration Observatory, at the University of Oxford COMPAS (Centre on Migration, Policy and Society) Added 'Migrant journey: fifth report', 'Migrant journey: fifth report: data tables' and 'Migrant journey: user guide'. The different sources of data on migration and migrants in the UK are not always consistent with each other. There were an estimated 3.7 million EU citizens living in the UK in 2019, though the accuracy of this estimate has been called into question by the number of applications to the EU settlement scheme. EU immigration fell considerably during this time, from 304,000 to 199,000 per year, while emigration of EU citizens increased steadily from 86,000 to 151,000. Added 'Immigration statistics, January to March 2015' and 'Immigration statistics, January to March 2015: data tables', updated 'Home Office immigration statistics: user guide', 'Policy and legislative changes affecting migration to the UK: timeline', 'Monthly asylum application tables' and 'Children entering detention under Immigration Act powers'. NINos are issued once to people who are aged 16 or over and are working, planning to work, or who claim benefits in the UK, regardless of how long they intend to stay. If you would like to make a press enquiry, please contact: + 44 (0)7500 970081 robert.mcneil@compas.ox.ac.uk, T: +44 (0)1865 274 701 While the estimated EU-born population was slightly lower in 2018 and 2019 than in 2017, this pattern is not reflected in other ONS data, which suggest that EU net migration has been stable in 2018 and 2019, though still positive. Immigration from the EU had consistently increased from 2011 to 2015, in large part due to the arrival of Southern European and Romanian nationals. Added ‘Immigration statistics, July to September 2016’ and ‘Immigration statistics, July to September 2016: data tables’, updated ‘Home Office immigration statistics: user guide’. Meanwhile the number of EU citizens emigrating has increased from an estimated 95,000 in the year before the referendum to 145,000 now. For both EU and non-EU citizens, more people come to the UK than leave the UK, meaning both groups have contributed to the increase in net migration. Among non-EU citizens, by contrast, the most commonly reported reason for moving to the UK in 2019 was study. Excluding the estimated 320,000 Irish citizens living in the UK in 2019, there were an estimated 3.4m non-Irish EU citizens. var divElement = document.getElementById('viz1601562226306'); var vizElement = divElement.getElementsByTagName('object')[0]; if ( divElement.offsetWidth > 800 ) { vizElement.style.minWidth='200px';vizElement.style.maxWidth='2560px';vizElement.style.width='100%';vizElement.style.height='727px';} else if ( divElement.offsetWidth > 500 ) { vizElement.style.width='100%';vizElement.style.height='671px';} else { vizElement.style.width='100%';vizElement.style.height='677px';} var scriptElement = document.createElement('script'); scriptElement.src = 'https://public.tableau.com/javascripts/api/viz_v1.js'; vizElement.parentNode.insertBefore(scriptElement, vizElement); In 2019, an estimated 1,662,000 or 47% of the EU born were from EU-14 countries (Figure 4). Added 'EU Settlement Scheme quarterly statistics, March 2020', updated 'Home Office EU Settlement Scheme statistics: user guide'. All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated, Statistics relating to passenger arrivals since the COVID-19 outbreak, November 2020, Immigration statistics, year ending September 2020, EU Settlement Scheme quarterly statistics, September 2020, Immigration statistics, year ending June 2020 second edition, Fifth report on statistics relating to exit checks, Statistics relating to passenger arrivals since the COVID-19 outbreak, August 2020, EU Settlement Scheme quarterly statistics, June 2020, EU Settlement Scheme statistics, May 2020, Statistics relating to Covid-19 and the immigration system, May 2020, Immigration statistics, year ending March 2020, EU Settlement Scheme statistics, April 2020, EU Settlement Scheme quarterly statistics, March 2020, EU Settlement Scheme statistics, March 2020, EU Settlement Scheme statistics, February 2020, Immigration statistics, year ending December 2019, EU Settlement Scheme statistics, January 2020, EU Settlement Scheme quarterly statistics, December 2019, EU Settlement Scheme statistics, December 2019, EU Settlement Scheme statistics, November 2019, Immigration statistics, year ending September 2019, EU Settlement Scheme statistics, October 2019, EU Settlement Scheme quarterly statistics, September 2019, EU Settlement Scheme statistics, September 2019 second edition, EU Settlement Scheme statistics, August 2019, Immigration statistics, year ending June 2019 second edition, EU Settlement Scheme quarterly statistics, June 2019, Fourth report on statistics being collected under the exit checks programme, EU Settlement Scheme statistics, July 2019, EU Settlement Scheme statistics, June 2019, EU Settlement Scheme statistics, May 2019 second edition, EU Settlement Scheme statistics, April 2019, Immigration statistics, year ending March 2019, Immigration Statistics, year ending December 2018, Immigration Statistics, year ending September 2018, Immigration statistics, year ending June 2018, Third report on statistics being collected under the exit checks programme, Immigration statistics, year ending March 2018, Statistics on changes in migrants’ visa and leave status: 2016, Immigration statistics, October to December 2017 second edition, Immigration statistics, July to September 2017, Asylum claims on the basis of sexual orientation, Immigration statistics, April to June 2017, Second report on statistics being collected under the exit checks programme, Immigration statistics, January to March 2017, Immigration statistics, October to December 2016, Statistics on changes in migrants’ visa and leave status: 2015, Immigration statistics, July to September 2016, Immigration statistics, April to June 2016, A report on the statistics being collected under the exit checks programme, Immigration statistics, January to March 2016, Immigration statistics, October to December 2015, Immigration statistics, July to September 2015, Immigration statistics, April to June 2015, Immigration statistics, January to March 2015, Immigration statistics, October to December 2014, Immigration statistics, July to September 2014, Immigration statistics, April to June 2014 second edition, Immigration statistics, January to March 2014, Immigration statistics, October to December 2013, Immigration statistics, July to September 2013, Immigration statistics, April to June 2013, Immigration statistics, July to September 2012, Immigration Statistics, January to March 2013, Immigration Statistics: October to December 2012, Foreign National Offenders in detention and leaving detention, Immigration statistics, April to June 2012 (third edition), Immigration statistics, January to March 2012, Immigration statistics October to December 2011, Immigration statistics July to September 2011, Immigration statistics April to June 2011, Immigration and asylum appeals allowed under articles 3 and 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights, Control of immigration: quarterly statistical summary first quarter 2011, Certificates of sponsorship: Tier 2 (general), Control of immigration: quarterly statistical summary fourth quarter 2010, Control of immigration: quarterly statistical summary third quarter 2010, Control of immigration: quarterly statistical summary second quarter 2010, Control of Immigration: statistics United Kingdom 2009, Control of immigration: quarterly statistical summary first quarter 2010, British Citizenship Statistics United Kingdom, 2009, British citizenship statistics United Kingdom, 2008, Immigration statistics data tables, year ending September 2020, Immigration statistics data tables, year ending June 2020, Immigration statistics data tables, year ending March 2020 second edition, Immigration statistics data tables, year ending December 2019, Immigration statistics data tables, year ending September 2019, Immigration statistics data tables, year ending June 2019 second edition, Immigration statistics, year ending March 2019: data tables, Immigration statistics, year ending December 2018: data tables, Immigration statistics, year ending September 2018: data tables, Immigration statistics, year ending June 2018: data tables, Immigration statistics, year ending March 2018: data tables, Immigration statistics, October to December 2017: data tables second edition, Immigration Statistics, July to September 2017: data tables, Immigration statistics, April to June 2017: data tables, Immigration statistics, January to March 2017: data tables, Immigration statistics, October to December 2016: data tables, Statistics on changes in migrants’ visa and leave status: 2015: data tables, Immigration statistics, July to September 2016: data tables, Immigration statistics, April to June 2016: data tables, Immigration statistics, January to March 2016: data tables, Immigration statistics, October to December 2015: data tables, Migrant journey: sixth report: data tables, Immigration statistics, July to September 2015: data tables, Immigration statistics, April to June 2015: data tables, Children entering detention under Immigration Act powers, Immigration statistics, January to March 2015: data tables, Immigration statistics, October to December 2014: data tables, Migrant journey: fifth report: data tables, Immigration statistics, July to September 2014: data tables, Tables for ‘Immigration Statistics: April to June 2014’, Tables for ‘Immigration Statistics, January to March 2014’, Tables for 'Immigration statistics, October to December 2013', Tables for 'Immigration statistics, July to September 2013', Tables for 'Immigration statistics, April to June 2013', Extensions of stay by previous category: tables, Tables for 'Immigration Statistics, January to March 2013', Tables for 'Immigration Statistics October to December 2012', Tables for 'Immigration Statistics, July to September 2012', Tables for ‘Immigration Statistics: April to June 2012’, Tables for 'Immigration statistics: January to March 2012', Tables for 'Immigration statistics: October to December 2011', Tables: immigration statistics, July to September 2011, Tables: Immigration Statistics April to June 2011, Immigration statistical summary 1999-2008, Home Office immigration statistics: user guide, Policy and legislative changes affecting migration to the UK: timeline, Home Office EU Settlement Scheme statistics: user guide, Home Office statistics on exit checks: user guide, Glossary of terms: control of immigration statistical publications, Coronavirus (COVID-19): guidance and support, Transparency and freedom of information releases. You can change your cookie settings at any time. Number of EU nationals in the United Kingdom 2019. Thanks to Agnieszka Kubal and Will Somerville for helpful comments on an earlier version of this briefing; and to Mariña Fernandez-Reino for providing valuable feedback on this 2020 version. The most recent set of figurespublished cover the year to September 2018. Europe also played a crucial role in developing a set of rules and norms regulating human mobility in the region. In contrast, the EU-14 migrant population has grown more gradually. European Union immigration statistics for 2000 was 29,602,637.00 , a 12.55% increase from 1995. The Tier 2 category accounts for 59% of work-related visas granted. The EU-born made up 5.5% of the total UK population of 66 million in 2019, while non-EU born people made up 8.9% (Office for National Statistics, 2020). A person who applies for a NINo may already have been living in the UK for some time. Per Capita Crime Statistics: Immigration and Crime in the UK. Added "EU Settlement Scheme statistics, May 2019". Figure 1: Non-EU net migration since 1991 (ONS). Added 'Immigration statistics, October to December 2015' and 'Immigration statistics, October to December 2015: data tables', updated 'Home Office immigration statistics: user guide' and 'Policy and legislative changes affecting migration to the UK: timeline'. National Insurance Number (NINo) allocation data from the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) provide information on people newly entering the labour market. The more than three million immigrants from the European Union now in Britain will be allowed to stay, while a visa scheme for fruit pickers and other farm workers will be … Added 'Immigration statistics, April to June 2014', 'Immigration statistics, April to June 2014: data tables', 'Children entering detention under Immigration Act powers' and 'Monthly asylum application tables'. There were 74,000 more EU citizens who came to the UK than people leaving for other EU countries. The faster increase in the EU-14-born population after 2012 can be linked to immigration from Spain and Italy, where the unemployment rate was particularly high (see our 2016 commentary, Pulling power: Why are EU citizens migrating to the UK?). Added "EU Settlement Scheme statistics, June 2019". Updated 'Monthly asylum application tables', 'Children entering detention under Immigration Act powers', 'Home Office immigration statistics: user guide' and 'Policy and legislative changes affecting migration to the UK: timeline'. Added 'Immigration statistics, October to December 2014' and 'Immigration statistics, October to December 2014: data tables', updated 'Home Office immigration statistics: user guide', 'Policy and legislative changes affecting migration to the UK: timeline', 'Monthly asylum application tables' and 'Children entering detention under Immigration Act powers'. There were 189,459 work-related visas granted in the year ending September 2019, 11% higher than the previous year, and the highest level since the year ending March 2008, around the time when a new immigration system (also known as ‘the points-based system’ (PBS)) was first introduced. How has the migration of EU citizens changed since the Brexit referendum? However, defining migrants as the foreign-born has the compensatory benefit of including people who have come to the UK and naturalised. In the first quarter of 2020, around 715,000 people moved to the UK, while 403,000 left, according to an Office for National Statistics (ONS) report published on Thursday. Earlier this year, the government unveiled its Immigration Bill, which revealed what migrants must do to qualify for UK entry after 1 January 2021. A range of key input and impact indicators are currently published by the Home Office on the Migration transparency data webpage. Added 'EU Settlement Scheme statistics, October 2019'. Among the working-age EU population, 83% were in employment (Figure 7). 'Immigration statistics, October to December 2017: data tables' has been updated. Added 'Immigration statistics, January to March 2014', 'Tables for ‘Immigration Statistics, January to March 2014’', 'Entry clearance visas by length' and 'Entry clearance visas by length: table'. The level of migration from the EU to the UK has been underestimated by the Office for National Statistics from the mid-2000s to 2016. The APS has some important limitations. Immigration to Europe has a long history, but increased substantially in the later 20th century. Its response rate has declined over time, and is now below 50% (ONS, 2016); this means that people who are more likely not to respond to the survey may be under-counted. EU Settlement Scheme quarterly statistics to September 2020, Immigration statistics, year ending September 2020 and Statistics relating to passenger arrivals since the COVID-19 outbreak, November 2020 published. Download Historical Data Save as Image Check how the new Brexit rules affect you. Until the end of the Second World War, most migration was within and out of Europe. Updated 'Monthly asylum application tables' and 'Children entering detention under Immigration Act powers'. Jonathan Portes / Apr 2017 . This is because migrants who acquire UK citizenship are excluded from data on the non-UK citizen population, and rates of naturalisation vary significantly depending on migrants’ country of origin. In 2019, just under half of EU-born migrants living in the UK were from EU-14 countries. A difference between two groups is considered statistically significant when the probability that this difference occurred by chance is small. EU net migration to UK at lowest level for 16 years after plummeting since Brexit vote. These recent revisions affected estimates of immigration from EU-8 countries, and other EU immigration has not yet been revised and so may not be directly comparable. The end of free movement rights after the UK leaves the EU means that citizens of other EU countries will no longer be entitled to access the UK labour market or to be self-employed, except where UK immigration rules allow. The main reason for this is that many children born in the UK to EU citizen parents are themselves EU citizens. For example, from 2017 to 2019, the estimated number of EU-born residents as measured by the Annual Population Survey declined, while the International Passenger Survey (LTIM data) estimated that the net migration of EU citizens was still positive. This means that it is often sensible to look at the overall picture across several data sources, rather than focusing on short-term changes in a single dataset. There was a net departure of 61,000 British citizens to other countries. However, it is usually still the preferred definition when using data on the migrant population, and especially change in the population over time. In 2019, 48% of EU citizens moving to the UK for at least a year said that work was their main reason for migrating (Figure 6). The foreign-born will include some people who are born abroad to UK citizen parents. It cautions that this estimate may still change as it continues to investigate the figures. var divElement = document.getElementById('viz1601562348714'); var vizElement = divElement.getElementsByTagName('object')[0]; if ( divElement.offsetWidth > 800 ) { vizElement.style.minWidth='200px';vizElement.style.maxWidth='2560px';vizElement.style.width='100%';vizElement.style.height='727px';} else if ( divElement.offsetWidth > 500 ) { vizElement.style.width='100%';vizElement.style.height='571px';} else { vizElement.style.width='100%';vizElement.style.height='577px';} var scriptElement = document.createElement('script'); scriptElement.src = 'https://public.tableau.com/javascripts/api/viz_v1.js'; vizElement.parentNode.insertBefore(scriptElement, vizElement); In 2019, 7.7% (2.1 million) of all workers in the UK were born in an EU country (7.6% if we restrict it to those under 65), including both employees and self-employed workers. Added 'Immigration statistics, July to September 2015' and 'Immigration statistics, July to September 2015: data tables', updated 'Home Office immigration statistics: user guide' and 'Policy and legislative changes affecting migration to the UK: timeline'. This is down from its peak of 922,000 in 2017 (in the same year, the number of Polish citizens in the UK was estimated at over a million). Number of UK citizens living in EU countries 2018 It will take only 2 minutes to fill in. This has the drawback of including British citizens born abroad, such as the children of parents in the armed forces based overseas. We’ll send you a link to a feedback form. Added 'Immigration statistics, year ending September 2018' and 'Immigration statistics, year ending September 2018: data tables', updated 'Home Office immigration statistics: user guide'. Detailed local-authority level data on national insurance number allocations to EU citizens can be found in the Migration Observatory’s Local Data Guide. Don’t worry we won’t send you spam or share your email address with anyone. Updated 'Home Office immigration statistics: user guide’, ’Policy and legislative changes affecting migration to the UK: timeline' and ‘Developments in migration statistics since 2010’. Thereafter, EU citizens migrating to the UK will be subject to the same immigration rules as citizens from the rest of the world, and any person wishing to move to the UK for longer than six months will require a visa. University of Oxford, Note that small differences between estimates for different groups may not be statistically significant, if they are not described in the narrative of the briefing. by The D May 13, 2018 September 25, 2018. In total, an estimated … This compares to 76% among the UK-born and 70% among the non-EU born. Added 'EU Settlement Scheme statistics, May 2020'. var divElement = document.getElementById('viz1601562252149'); var vizElement = divElement.getElementsByTagName('object')[0]; if ( divElement.offsetWidth > 800 ) { vizElement.style.minWidth='200px';vizElement.style.maxWidth='2560px';vizElement.style.width='100%';vizElement.style.height='727px';} else if ( divElement.offsetWidth > 500 ) { vizElement.style.width='100%';vizElement.style.height='671px';} else { vizElement.style.width='100%';vizElement.style.height='577px';} var scriptElement = document.createElement('script'); scriptElement.src = 'https://public.tableau.com/javascripts/api/viz_v1.js'; vizElement.parentNode.insertBefore(scriptElement, vizElement); In 2019, Poland was the largest country of origin of EU-born residents (Figure 5), comprising 818,000 people, or 23% of the total EU-born population in the UK. (Some people born in the UK are automatically UK citizens, but this is not always the case and depends on the residence status of the parents at the time the child is born.) 58 Banbury Road, You’ve accepted all cookies. For more information on work-related migration, see the Migration Observatory briefing, Work Visas and Migrant Workers in the UK. Added 'EU Settlement Scheme statistics, December 2019’. As of 30 June 2020, the number of non-Irish EU-citizen applicants to the EU Settlement Scheme was 3.5m, which is more than the 3.4m non-Irish EU citizens that ONS estimated to be resident in the UK in 2019 (Office for National Statistics, 2020). Added 'EU Settlement Scheme statistics, July 2019'. That’s now down to 202,000. Fewer coming for work. Added 'July 2014 Monthly asylum application' tables and 'August 2014 Children entering detention under Immigration Act powers' table. In part, this will be because the overall EUSS figures include (1) people who had left the UK but could still apply to the scheme to preserve their right to return, and (2) applicants who reapplied to update their status from pre-settled status to settled status, who are counted twice. var divElement = document.getElementById('viz1601562371870'); var vizElement = divElement.getElementsByTagName('object')[0]; if ( divElement.offsetWidth > 800 ) { vizElement.style.minWidth='200px';vizElement.style.maxWidth='2560px';vizElement.style.width='100%';vizElement.style.height='727px';} else if ( divElement.offsetWidth > 500 ) { vizElement.style.width='100%';vizElement.style.height='671px';} else { vizElement.style.width='100%';vizElement.style.height='577px';} var scriptElement = document.createElement('script'); scriptElement.src = 'https://public.tableau.com/javascripts/api/viz_v1.js'; vizElement.parentNode.insertBefore(scriptElement, vizElement); EU immigration rose sharply in the years leading up to the EU referendum in June 2016, but has declined since 2016 – a pattern reflected in both the National Insurance Number (NINo) allocation data (Figure 8) and ONS data on long-term migration flows. More precisely, in the 19th and first half of the 20th centuries, E… In 2019, 48% of EU nationals in the UK said they migrated to the country for work-related reasons. Don’t include personal or financial information like your National Insurance number or credit card details. Added ‘Immigration statistics, October to December 2016’ and ‘Immigration statistics, October to December 2016: data tables’, updated ‘Home Office immigration statistics: user guide’. 1. This follows a gradual increase in immigration of non-EU citizens over the past five years for both work and study, particularly from India and China. Added 'EU Settlement Scheme statistics, February 2020', updated 'Home Office EU Settlement Scheme statistics: user guide'. LTIM estimates from the UK’s Office for National Statistics (ONS) are based mainly on the International Passenger Survey (IPS). The population of EU-8 born residents increased from an estimated 167,000 in 2004 to 1,686,000 in 2017, and declined in the following two years. Note that these figures have been revised on several occasions, most recently in August 2019, following improvements to the ONS methodology. For more information about the EU Settlement Scheme, see the Migration Observatory report, Unsettled Status – 2020: Which EU Citizens are at Risk of Failing to Secure their Rights after Brexit? Added 'Immigration statistics, January to March 2016' and 'Immigration statistics, January to March 2016: data tables', updated 'User Guide to Home Office Immigration Statistics' and 'Policy and legislative changes affecting migration to the UK: timeline'. Non-British population in United Kingdom (UK) 2019, by nationality . We use cookies to collect information about how you use GOV.UK. 'Immigration statistics data tables, year ending March 2020' has been updated to second edition. However, all the differences between groups that are described in the text of the briefing are statistically significant. The Office for National Statistics admits it underestimated long-term EU immigration between 2009 and 2016 by almost a quarter of a million. The percentage of employed workers was slightly higher among workers born in EU-8 and EU-2 countries (84%) than among the EU-14-born (82%) (Figure 7). Poland was the top country of birth among the EU-born in 2019, followed by Romania and Ireland. Added 'Immigration statistics, year ending June 2019', 'Immigration statistics data tables, year ending June 2019', 'EU Settlement Scheme quarterly statistics, June 2019', 'Fourth report on statistics being collected under the exit checks programme' and 'Home Office EU Settlement Scheme quarterly statistics: user guide', updated 'Home Office immigration statistics: user guide' and 'Home Office statistics on exit checks: user guide'. This Migration Observatory is kindly supported by the following organisations. This survey provides data on immigration, emigration and net migration of EU citizens based on a standard definition of a long-term migrant as a person who moves to a country for at least a year. Learn more about us. Migration to the UK from outside the European Union hit record levels last year, according to official figures. Added 'Immigration statistics, year ending September 2019', updated 'Home Office immigration statistics: user guide'. Added 'Immigration Statistics, January to March 2017' and 'Immigration Statistics, January to March 2017: data tables', updated 'Home Office immigration statistics: user guide' and 'Policy and legislative changes affecting migration to the UK: timeline'. The number of EU-2-born residents – whose countries joined the EU in 2007 and gained free movement access to the UK in 2014 – increased from 235,000 in 2014 to 555,000 in 2019. Updated 'Statistics on changes in migrants’ visa and leave status: 2016'. 6.2 million people were living in the UK who had the nationality of a different country (9% of the total population), 3.7 million EU nationals were living in the UK, and; 994,000 UK nationals were living in other EU countries excluding Ireland. Added 'EU Settlement Scheme statistics, September 2019'. Added 'EU Settlement Scheme statistics, April 2019'. For further discussion of this terminology, see the Migration Observatory briefing, Who Counts as a Migrant: Definitions and their Consequences. var divElement = document.getElementById('viz1601562398828'); var vizElement = divElement.getElementsByTagName('object')[0]; if ( divElement.offsetWidth > 800 ) { vizElement.style.minWidth='200px';vizElement.style.maxWidth='2560px';vizElement.style.width='100%';vizElement.style.height='727px';} else if ( divElement.offsetWidth > 500 ) { vizElement.style.width='100%';vizElement.style.height='671px';} else { vizElement.style.width='100%';vizElement.style.height='577px';} var scriptElement = document.createElement('script'); scriptElement.src = 'https://public.tableau.com/javascripts/api/viz_v1.js'; vizElement.parentNode.insertBefore(scriptElement, vizElement); ... UK Govt Statistics Office Undercounted EU Migration by 240,000 498 PAUL FAITH/AFP/Getty Images. Added 'EU Settlement Scheme statistics, November 2019' and 'Home Office EU Settlement Scheme statistics: user guide'. Updated 'Home Office immigration statistics: user guide' and 'Policy and legislative changes affecting migration to the UK: timeline'. The Migration Observatory informs debates on international migration and public policy. 'Policy and legislative changes affecting migration to UK at lowest level for 16 after., non-EU net migration to the UK said they migrated to the UK EU! The foreign-born has the drawback of including people who are born abroad to UK citizen are!, followed by Romania and Ireland address them approaches to producing migration statistics immigration during the year! Kingdom ( UK ) 2019, following peak levels of over 200,000 in 2015 and early.... Uk population each other as it continues to investigate the figures Office for statistics. Been a crossroads of human mobility since ancient times net immigration since 2012 and … EU vs migration... 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