Brunswick is a small, landlocked country in the North Germany region. The western part of the Duchy lay in the Weser Uplands, the central and southern parts in the northern Harz Foreland and the Harz mountains. Lüneburg, city, Lower Saxony Land (state), north-central Germany.It lies on the Ilmenau River at the northeastern edge of the Lüneburg Heath (Lüneburger Heide), 30 miles (50 km) south of Hamburg.Known as Luniburc in ad 956, it expanded in the 12th century under Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony.It was chartered in 1247 and was the residence of the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg until 1371. It was named for the colonial port of Brunswick Town (now in ruins) which itself was named for Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg; at the time held by the British kings of the House of Hanover. In 1269 divided the land with him, and became Prince of Luneburg. As he opposed to the newly elected Emperor. By a law of 1879, the Duchy of Brunswick established a temporary council of regency to take over at the Duke's death. The first section of its Brunswick–Bad Harzburg railway line connecting Braunschweig and Wolfenbüttel opened on 1 December 1838, as the first railway line in Northern Germany. Prince Charles II of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel also protested these violent annexations from his places of exile in Paris, as well as Geneva Switzerland, and from the UK. In the wake of his death, Elector Wenceslas appointed Bernard, his brother-in-law, as co-regent involved him in the government. It was disestablished after the end of World War I, its territory incorporated into the Weimar Republic as the Free State of Brunswick. The territories of Calenberg and Lüneburg-Celle were made an Electorate by the Emperor Leopold I in 1692 in expectation of the imminent inheritance of Celle by the Duke of Calenberg, though the actual dynastic union of the territories did not occur until 1705 under his son George I Louis, and the Electorate was not officially approved by the Imperial Diet until 1708. In 1814 the principality became the Duchy of Brunswick, with its own subordinate principalities that are all apart from the Calenburg principality from which sprang the de facto Kingdom of Hanover. Albert the Tall (Latin: Albertus Longus, German: Albrecht der Große) (1236–1279), of the House of Welf, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1252 to 1269 and the first ruler of the newly created Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel from 1269 until his death. Brunonia, the national personification of Brunswick. After the German Confederation intervened, Charles was forced to accept those laws. At the Imperial Diet of 1235 in Mainz, as part of the reconciliation between the Hohenstaufen and Welf families, Henry's grandson, Otto the Child, transferred his estates to Emperor Frederick II and was enfeoffed in return with the newly created Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, which was formed from the estates transferred to the Emperor as well as other large areas of the imperial fisc. Ferdinand Albert, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, was a relative of the princes of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. In the east it ran through Göttingen along the River Leine via Northeim to Einbeck. Formal sovereignty confirmed. In 1546 the house of Brunswick-Lüneburg divided into the branches of Lüneburg (principality of Hanover) and Wolfenbüttel (the duchy of Brunswick). The Hanoverians never ruled Brunswick while they held the British throne, as the city was part of neighbouring Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. [1][2] By 1692, the territories had consolidated to two: the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Left no descendants. Over time, the arms of smaller territories that had been acquired by the Dukes of Brunswick were added to the coat of arms. All English Français. Not until 1753/1754 was the Residence moved back to Brunswick, into the newly built Brunswick Palace. At his death without male descendants, the land passed to his son-in-law, the, Sons of Augustus II, ruled jointly from 1685 to 1702. Office of the Historian, Foreign Service Institute United States Department of State. Some other railways of secondary importance were operated by the Brunswick State Railway Company, founded in 1884. As he left no male descendants, the land passed to his brother Philip. Worth - Brunswick-Lüneburg 1 thaler 1700-1711 in the coin catalog at - International Catalog of World Coins. [21] The new lesser coat of arms introduced under William VIII was a return to the arms of Brunswick-Lüneburg, displayed on a crowned shield supported by two lions. From 1705 onward, all other portions of Brunswick-Lüneburg except Wolfenbüttel had been held by the Prince of Calenberg and Celle, i.e. Moedas: Brunswick-Lüneburg. Joined Wolfenbüttel to his domains in 1485, when he imprisoned his brother. 1896]. In 1617 annexed Grubenhagen to his domains. If Ernest Augustus–who had been created the Duke of Cumberland in the British peerage–were unable to succeed, the council would also be empowered to appoint a regent. Ernst August, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1845-1923. [9], In 1905, out of 1,000 residents 455 were working in the industrial sector, mining or construction, 289 were working in agriculture and forestry, 121 in commerce, 57.3 were employed in the civil service and 70 were working in miscellaneous other professions.[9]. Inherited Wolfenbüttel from his father. After the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, Calenberg-Celle and its possessions were added to by the Congress of Vienna ending the Napoleonic war, being born anew under the name of Kingdom of Hanover (including Brunswick-Lüneburg). Email Address. The land passed to his brother, Christian. Augustus's sons succeeded him, sometimes ruling together: Anthony Ulrich's sons succeeded him in sequence: Horst-Rüdiger Jarck, Gerhard Schildt (eds. [11], Brunswick also played a pioneering role in the history of association football in Germany: Konrad Koch, a school teacher from Braunschweig, was the first to write down a German version of the rules of football, and, together with August Hermann, also arguably organized the first football match in Germany between pupils from his school Martino-Katharineum in 1874.[12][13]. Their rule was marked by major building work to Celle Castle and also by numerous reforms which improved the legal situation of farmers vis-a-vis their local lords. Bavaria and Saxony. The subordinate states that were repeatedly created, and which had the legal status of principalities, were generally named after the residence of their rulers. When the main line of descent became extinct in 1884, the German Emperor withheld the rightful heir, the Crown Prince of Hanover, from takin… In 1269 the Principality of Brunswick was formed following the first division of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. But his younger brother, Brother of Albert III, regent on behalf of his nephew, Eric. 6792999, citing Kapuzinergruft, Vienna, Wien Stadt, Vienna (Wien), Austria ; Maintained by Find A Grave . ), This article is about the German states ruled by the various Dukes of Brunswick and Lüneburg. It was not just happenstance but similar religious driven politics that brought about the circumstance that he was also put into the line of succession for the British crown by the Act of Settlement— which was written to ensure a Protestant succession to the thrones of Scotland and England at a time when anti-Catholic sentiment ran high in much of Northern Europe and much of Great Britain. The county was formed in 1764 from parts of Bladen County and New Hanover County. In 1692, he was appointed, The electorship became effective under his rule. Shared rule with his brother John. On Frederick Ulrich's death, his complex of territories passed to a line of distant cousins ruling in Lüneburg. George I of Great Britain. Website. As a latter day development, what became the Electorate of Hanover was initially called the Elector of Brunswick-Lunenberg when the Holy Roman Emperor appointed Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Lunenberg an Elector in 1696 (two years before his death) in a somewhat controversial move to increase the number of Protestant electors—thereby offending the entrenched interests of the extant prince-electors who would no longer be so few. Prussia recognized Duke Charles II as the rightful Duke, although in exile. George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, is considered the first member of the House of Hanover. While the revolutionary government frantically raised fresh troops and reorganised its armies, a Prussian-Austrian army under Charles Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick assembled at Coblenz on the Rhine. the Elector of Hanover, but the Wolfenbüttel line retained its independence from Hanover. While a total of about a dozen subdivisions that existed, some were only dynastic and not recognised as states of the Empire, which at one time had over 1500 such legally recognized entities. The princes are numbered by the year of their succession. His lands passed to collateral lines of the Lüneburg Welfs. From 1546 Wolfenbüttel became the residence of the senior prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Henry, Duke of Brunswick-Dannenberg. Houghton Library: creatorOf The southernmost principality in the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg stretched from Münden in the south down the River Weser to Holzminden. The Duke of Cumberland then proclaimed himself Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick. When the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg was divided in 1635, George inherited the Principality of Calenberg and moved his residence to Hanover. The Duchy remained independent and joined first the North German Confederation and in 1871 the German Empire. William originally considered himself only his brother's regent, but after a year declared himself ruling duke. Decades later, the families were reconciled by the marriage of the Crown Prince's son to the Emperor's only daughter, and the Emperor allowed his son-in-law to assume rule (his father having renounced his own right). Subsequently, the kingdom was lost in 1866 by his son George V of Hanover during the Austro-Prussian War when it was annexed by Prussia, and became the Prussian province of Hanover. The seats of power moved in the meantime from Brunswick and Lüneburg to Celle and Wolfenbüttel as the towns asserted their independence. Coins: Brunswick-Lüneburg. Anna passed away on November 6 … [22], Coat of arms of the Duchy of Brunswick before 1834, Lesser coat of arms of the Duchy of Brunswick, Saxon steed on an 1860s stamp of Brunswick, Coat of arms of Brunswick on an 1866 Vereinsthaler, Coat of arms of the Dukes of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Main parts and exclaves of Brunswick by size, Evangelical Lutheran State Church in Brunswick, Ernest Augustus, the deposed duke of Brunswick, Prince Ernst August of Hanover (1914–1987), Prince Ernst August of Hanover (born 1954), Gemeindeverzeichnis Deutschland 1900 - Herzogtum Braunschweig, "Die Wiege des Fußballs stand in Braunschweig", "Der Mann, der die "englische Krankheit" einschleppte",, States and territories disestablished in 1918, States and territories established in 1815, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the flag caption or type parameters, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from December 2015, Lower Saxony articles missing geocoordinate data, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Main part with Braunschweig, Wolfenbüttel, Helmstedt, Western part with Holzminden, Seesen, Gandersheim, Province of Hanover, Province of Westphalia, Waldeck, Province of Hanover, Province of Saxony, Anhalt. He was the last Catholic of his family. His protests included repudiations of the new entities and titles created by the Council of Vienna, most of which were published in the Gazette on an annual basis. In 1847, MTV Braunschweig was founded as the first sports club in Brunswick. For the two largest states during most of the 18th century, see, Duchy in Holy Roman Empire 1235-1269; title of "Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg" used by rulers of all successor states, History of the subordinate principalities, Principality of Calenberg (later Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg), History of the relationship to the British Crown, Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg and successors, Partitions of Brunswick-Lüneburg under Welf rule. Sons of Albert I, ruled jointly. His rule was marked by several feuds, financed by pledges (Verpfändungen), involving border and property disputes with his neighbours. For further information on the governments of Brunswick from 1918 on, see Free State of Brunswick. (Note: Here the numbering of the princes is the same for all duchies, as all were titled Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg, despite of the different parts of land and its particular numbering of the rulers. Ruled jointly with his brother Bernard until 1464. Imprisoned by his brother William, who took his place. The new constitution of Brunswick was declared illegal, as well as all new laws passed by Hanover during their Regency. Fax: 202-955-0268 Sons of William V, ruled jointly. Christian the Elder, Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg by Robert Van Voerst, Daniel Mytems ca. The whole world unanimously honored his will which stated Hanover and his brother were (after having been condemned to death) not his natural family. Daughter of Duke Georg Wilhelm of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Celle and Eleonore d'Olbreuse. The districts were further subdivided into cities or towns (Städte) and more rural townships (Ämter). In 1494, they divided their lands. Left no descendants, and Calenberg was annexed to Wolfenbüttel. In 1918, with the abolition of the monarchy, all nobles titles were equally abolished. In 1400 inherited Wolfenbüttel and in 1416 divided their lands: Henry retained Lüneburg and Bernard kept Wolfenbüttel until 1428, when exchanged it with Lüneburg from his nephews. In the List of Reichstag participants (1792), the following four subdivisions of Brunswick-Lüneburg had recognized representation: By 1705 only two Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg survived, one ruling Calenberg, Lüneburg and other possessions, and the other ruling Wolfenbüttel. In 1440 divided Grubenhagen with his brother Albert. Proofread and pages added by Jonathan Perry, March 2001. During the night of 7–8 September 1830, the ducal palace in Braunschweig was stormed by an angry mob, set on fire and destroyed completely. After his death,according to the treaty, the duchy was returned to the Welfs. With sole rights to the duchy Brunswick-Lüneburg, he provided a conditional sub-lease of the principality of Lüneburg to the princes of Calenburg with the conditions of payment to the Wolfenbüttel heirs (Chief of the House), together with the guarantee that only his descendants would inherit this senior principality of Wolfenbüttel. Henry retained Wolfenbüttel and Eric retained Calenberg. The subsequent history of the dukedom and its subordinate principalities was characterised by numerous divisions and reunifications. Brunswick starts the game as a member of the Holy Roman Empire (HRE) and shares borders with multiple countries, including three HRE Electors — Brandenburg, Cologne and Saxony. His possessions were enlarged in 1706 when the hereditary lands of the Calenberg branch of the Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg merged with the lands of the Lüneburg-Celle branch to form the state of Hanover. PIC is the international leader in the provision of continuous genetic improvement in pig breeding stock and in world class technical support to the global pork supply chain. Ernest became Prince of Göttingen 1344–1367. [17] The dukes of Brunswick later added the blue lion to their arms as well, to show their own claim to the territory of Lüneburg. is an International Catalog of World Coins. Its name came from the two largest cities in the territory: Brunswick and Lüneburg. 1815 (0.39%) people were of Jewish faith. Both branches used in their arms the two lions of Brunswick, the blue lion of Lüneburg and the white steed of Saxony. After a little over a decade, the matter of the disputed electorate was settled upon the heir, and the new Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (acceded as duke on 23 January 1698), George I Louis was able to style himself the Elector of Brunswick and Lüneburg from 1708. Extraits der notes et ..." pgs 411-412 etc. Following his death, his three sons jointly ruled the Duchy. Abdicated to his sons in 1491. Charles made several desperate attempts, unsuccessfully, to depose him. History Dukes and Electors of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Inherited Wolfenbüttel from his father. The towns of Lüneburg and Brunswick remained in the overall possession of the House of Welf until 1512 and 1671 respectively. His death without descendants precipitated the. In 1428, Bernard recovered Luneburg from his nephews. In the early game, neighbours like Saxony and Lüneburg are prime targets for PUs. Anna of Brunswick-Lüneburg was born on December 6 1502, in Celle, to Henry The Middle, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Margaret of Saxony, Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Charles fled the country.[2]. Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, duc de Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, 1735-1806 Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg, 1735-1806 Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, hertog van Brunswijk, 1735-1806 The lesser coat of arms of the Duchy of Brunswick showed a crowned shield with the white horse on a red background. to Augustus, son of Henry of Dannenberg. Younger son of Henry X. Younger son of William VI. ***If you chose Registered mail then I accept full responsibility if the item is lost in the mail. Otto von Bismark honored the treaty in sending financial assets of the domains of Brunswick to Geneva.[3]. Then, in 1827, Charles declared some of the laws made during his minority invalid, which caused conflicts. He briefly ruled the state of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel from 1806-1807. However, his death without descendants allowed his cousins (sons of Albert) to reunite Grubenhagen. In 1291 divided the land: Henry received Grubenhagen, William Wolfenbüttel and Albert Göttingen. Select from premium Duke Of Brunswick Lüneburg of the highest quality. Duchess Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick and Luneburg with her children George and Sophia Dorothea. The duchy was located in … The major rivers that ran through Brunswick were the Weser, Aller, Leine, Oker, Bode and Innerste. 1630–1636. The first Hanoverian King of Great Britain, George I of Great Britain, was the reigning Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and was finally made an official and recognized prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire in 1708. (Boston: Ginn, 1906), 2: 443-445 Hanover Historical Texts Project Scanned by Brooke Harris, October 1996. [8], In 1905, 450,760 people or 92.5% of the population adhered to the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Brunswick. The Duchy of Brunswick Football Association (German: Fußballbund für das Herzogtum Braunschweig) was founded in May 1904. Other branches that did not have full sovereignty existed in the Dannenberg, Harburg, Gifhorn, Bevern, Osterode, Herzberg, Salzderhelden and Einbeck. In 1269 the duchy was divided, Albert receiving the southern part of the state around Brunswick and John the northern territories in the area of Lüneburg. While William joined the Prussian-led North German Confederation in 1866, his relationship to Prussia was strained, since Prussia refused to recognize Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, his nearest male-line relative, as his heir. [15] It were Henry's sons from his marriage with Matilda of England, the future Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV and Henry V, Count Palatine of the Rhine, who adapted the Royal Arms of England to display their royal lineage. Frederick William's son Charles (a minor at the time of his father's death) became the first Duke of independent Brunswick. Fulfilling the agreement of Hanover, married the daughter of the Duke Wenceslaus of Saxe-Wittenberg. His administration was considered corrupt and misguided. It had been a portion of the medieval Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg.From 1705 onward, all other portions of Brunswick-Lüneburg except Wolfenbüttel had been held by the Prince of Calenberg and Celle, i.e. When he came of age there was immediate confrontation and open protests on an annual and consistent basis. Not to be confused with Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Because of his alcoholism, was deposed by his own mother, who took the regency in his name. By house law, the House of Hanover would have ascended the ducal throne. All of its TV products are manufactured at a specially developed production facility in the North East of England and are distributed in the UK and Europe through major retailers offline and on. The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (German: Herzogtum Braunschweig und Lüneburg), or more properly the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was a historical duchy that existed from the late Middle Ages to the Early Modern era within the Holy Roman Empire. Left no male descendants. The Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (German: Kurfürstentum Braunschweig-Lüneburg), colloquially Electorate of Hanover (Kurfürstentum Hannover or simply Kurhannover), was established in 1692 as the ninth Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire.. In 1714, the Hanoverian branch of the family succeeded to the throne of Great Britain, which they ruled in personal union with Hanover until 1837. As with most matters in Europe during these times, this was part of the centuries-long religious unrest accompanied by outright warfare (see Thirty Years' War) triggered by the zealous advocates on either side of the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Counter-Reformation. France, the UK and the USA co-signed treaties that would have ousted Hanover and placed them in the hands of Charles II, had they followed through. After the revolution of 1830, liberal reforms were made and a new constitution was adopted on 12 October 1832. The duchy was divided several times during the High Middle Ages amongst various lines of the House of Welf, but each ruler was styled "Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg" in addition to his own particular title. Crowned arms within Order, with supporters… 1506 people (0.40%) were foreign nationals, among those 785 came from Austria-Hungary, 133 from the United Kingdom, 112 from the United States, 91 from Italy, 83 from the Russian Empire, and 81 from Switzerland. For this reason, many cities and provinces in former British colonies are named after Brunswick or Lüneburg. In 1432 the estates gained by the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel between the Deister and Leine split away as the Principality of Calenberg. Brunswick Manifesto, Charles Wilhelm Ferdinand, Citizen Louis Capet, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, French Monarchy, French Revolution, Guillotine, King Louis XVI of France, National Convention While the revolutionary government frantically raised fresh troops and reorganised its armies, a Prussian-Austrian army under Charles Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick assembled at Coblenz on the Rhine. In 1814 it was succeeded by the Kingdom of Hanover. Cello Solar is an associate company of one of the UK’s leading LED TV brands,Cello Electronics. Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. The land passed to his brothers. History Edit. They permanently recovered Lüneburg for the Welfs. George I was followed by his son George II and great-grandson George III. ): This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 23:03. They offer vaccine recommendations and the latest news on outbreaks and other health risks as well as factsheets that contain useful information for staying healthy during your travel. Regent on behalf of his son after the death of his grandfather. You will be refunded fully including the shipping charges*** From the year 1137, under the name of the Guelphic Lands (Welfissche Lande), it was under the Dukes of Brunswick. It existed from 1269 until 1705 and its territory lay within the modern-day state of Lower Saxony in Germany. Germany, Brunswick-Lüneburg, Georg Ludwig (George I of England, 1714-27), silver Taler, 1718 HCB, Clausthal, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. These recognitions were consistent with what transpired from his signed and sealed will dated the 12th of April 1873. In the midst of the German revolutions of 1918, the Duke had to abdicate, and the Free State of Brunswick was founded as a member state of the Weimar Republic. At that point, the crown of Hanover went to William's younger brother, Ernest, Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale under the Salic laws requiring the next male heir to inherit, whereas the British throne was inherited by an elder brother's only daughter, Queen Victoria. In the 1870s, it became obvious that the then senior branch of the ruling House of Welf would die with Duke William.

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